The forerunner of Social Work
Social work is a profession that aims to improve the well-being of individuals, groups, and communities, especially those who are marginalized, oppressed, or vulnerable. Social work has a long and diverse history that reflects the changing needs and values of society. Following are some of the forerunners of social work who contributed to the development of the profession in different parts of the world.
Jane Addams (1860-1935)
One of the earliest forerunners of social work was Jane Addams (1860-1935), an American social reformer and activist who founded Hull House, one of the first settlement houses in Chicago. Settlement houses were community centers that provided various services and activities for the poor and immigrant populations, such as education, health care, recreation, and advocacy. Addams was influenced by the social gospel movement, which applied Christian principles to social problems, and by her visit to Toynbee Hall, a settlement house in London. She was also involved in various causes such as women’s suffrage, peace, labor rights, and racial justice. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 for her humanitarian work.
Octavia Hill (1838-1912)
Another pioneer of social work was Octavia Hill (1838-1912), a British housing reformer and philanthropist who is considered one of the founders of modern social housing. Hill was concerned about the living conditions of the poor in London’s slums and began to manage and improve some of the properties owned by her wealthy friends. She charged low rents, collected them personally, and encouraged tenants to keep their homes clean and tidy. She also provided them with social support, such as education, recreation, and savings clubs. She advocated for better housing standards, open spaces, and environmental preservation. She was also one of the co-founders of the Charity Organisation Society (COS), which aimed to coordinate and rationalize charitable work based on scientific principles.
Mary Ellen Richmond (1861-1928)
A third forerunner of social work was Mary Ellen Richmond (1861-1928), an American social caseworker and theorist who is regarded as one of the founders of professional social work. Richmond worked for several charity organizations, such as the Baltimore Charity Organization Society and the Russell Sage Foundation. She developed a systematic approach to social casework, which involved assessing the individual’s situation, needs, strengths, and resources; planning and implementing interventions, and evaluating outcomes. She also emphasized the importance of social diagnosis, which involved gathering relevant facts and analyzing them concerning social problems. She wrote several influential books on social casework theory and practice, such as Social Diagnosis (1917) and What is Social Case Work? (1922).
Alice Salomon (1872-1948)
A fourth forerunner of social work was Alice Salomon (1872-1948), a German social reformer and educator who is considered one of the pioneers of social work education. Salomon was influenced by the women’s movement and the ethical socialism movement in Germany. She founded several organizations for women’s welfare and education, such as the Federation of German Women’s Associations and the Social Women’s School in Berlin. She advocated for professional training and standards for social workers, as well as for their recognition and rights. She also promoted international cooperation and exchange among social workers. She was one of the founders of the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW) in 1928.
Jane Mathews (1849-1916)
A fifth forerunner of social work was Jane Mathews (1849-1916), an Australian social reformer and activist who is regarded as one of the first Australian social workers. Mathews was influenced by her Christian faith and her visit to England, where she learned about settlement houses and charity organization societies. She returned to Australia and established several organizations for women’s welfare and education, such as the Sydney Female Refuge Society and the Women’s College at Sydney University. She also campaigned for women’s suffrage, temperance, child welfare, and prison reform. She was one of the first women to be elected to a local government council in Australia
These are just some examples of the many forerunners of social work who shaped the profession in different ways. They shared a common vision of improving human well-being through social action, research, education, and advocacy. They also faced common challenges and tensions, such as:
- Professionalization: Social workers have struggled to define and regulate their profession, establish their identity and credibility, and balance their values and ethics with the demands and expectations of society, employers, and clients.
- Oppression: Social workers have encountered various forms of oppression, such as sexism, racism, classism, and colonialism, both in their own lives and in the lives of the people they serve. They have also resisted and challenged oppression through their work and activism.
- Cross-cultural adaptation: Social workers have borrowed and adapted models and methods of social work from other countries and cultures, while also trying to indigenize and contextualize them to suit their realities and needs. They have also learned from and collaborated with social workers from different backgrounds and perspectives.
These challenges and tensions are still relevant for social work today, as the profession continues to evolve and respond to the changing needs and issues of society. By learning from the history of social work, we can appreciate the contributions of the forerunners of social work, as well as the diversity and complexity of the profession.