Drug Abuse and Alcoholism

Name:-Rinku Kumari Mahato

College:-Nava Kshitij Colege

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods that are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder. Widely differing contexts. In some cases, criminal or anti-social behavior occurs when the person is under the influence of a drug, and long-term personality changes in individuals may occur as well. In addition to possible physical, social, and psychological harm, the use of some drugs may also lead to criminal penalties, although these very widely depending on the local jurisdiction.

Drugs most often associated with this term include alcohol, cannabis, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, methaqualone, opioids, and some substituted amphetamines. The exact cause of substance abuse is not clear, with the two predominant theories being: either a genetic disposition which is learned from others or a habit which if addiction develops, manifests itself as a chronic debilitating disease.

Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems. The disorder was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. In a medical context, alcoholism, is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage result in health problem, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use. Risky situations include drinking and driving or having unsafe sex, among other things. Alcohol use can affect all parts of the body, but it particularly affects the brain, hearts, liver, pancreas and immune system. This can results in mental illness Wernicke-korasakoff syndrome, an irregular heartbeat, cirrhosis of the liver and an increase in the risk of cancer, among other diseases. Drinking during pregnancy can cause damage to the baby resulting in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Women are generally more sensitive than men to the harmful physical and mental effects of alcohol.

Environmental factors and genetics are two components that are associated with alcoholism, with about half the risk attributed to each. A person with a parents or sibling with alcoholism is there to four times more likely to become an alcoholic themselves. Environmental factors include social, cultural and behavioral influences. High stress  levels and anxiety, as well as alcohol’s inexpensive cost and easy accessibility, increase the risk. After a person stops drink alcohol, they may experience a low level of withdrawal lasting for months. Medically, alcoholism is Consider both a physical and mental illness. Questionnaires and certain blood tests may both detect people with possible alcoholism. Further information is then collected to confirm the diagnosis.

Prevention of alcoholism may be attempted by regulating and limiting the sale of alcohol, taxing alcohol to increase its costs, and providing inexpensive treatment. Treatment may take several steps. Due to medical problems that can occur during withdrawal, alcohol detoxification should be carefully controlled. One common methods involves the use of benzo diazepine medications, Such as diazepam. These can be either given while admitted to a health care institution or occasionally while a person remains in the community with close supervision. Mental illness or other addictions may complicate treatment. After detoxification, support such as group therapy or support groups are used to help keep a person from returning to drinking. One commonly used form of support is the group Alcoholics Anonymous. The medications acamprosate, disulfiram or naltrexone may also be used to help prevent further drinking.

Signs and Symptoms of Drug Abuse

When someone is abusing drugs, there are often telltale signs and symptoms that are both physical and behavioral, including:

  • Sudden mood swings.
  • Changes in normal behavior.
  • Lack of hygiene and grooming.
  • Withdrawal from friends and family.
  • Loss of interest in normal social activities and hobbies.
  • Changes in sleeping patterns.

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